martes, 8 de enero de 2013

REPORTED SPEECH - TEORÍA

El Estilo indirecto o Reported speech es una estructura que se emplea cuando queremos decir o hacer mención sobre algo que alguien ha dicho previamente.

Direct speech
(estilo directo)
Reported speech
(estilo indirecto)
"I always drink coffee". She said.
She said that she always drank coffee.
"Yo siempre bebo café." Ella dijo.
Ella dijo que ella siempre bebía café.


Para hacer mención sobre lo que alguien ha dicho usamos verbos como explain, promise, say, tell, suggest... Aunque los más utilizados son say y tell.
No es necesario cambiar el tiempo del verbo si el verbo de la oración principal está en presente. En el ejemplo anterior podríamos decir: She said that she always drink coffee.
Para introducir lo que ha dicho, usamos that aunque muchas veces se puede omitir esta palabra.
Al convertir una oración de "Direct Speech" a "Reported Speech" tenemos en cuenta que el verbo principal retrocede un tiempo verbal.

Tabla de cambios que sufre el verbo:

Direct speech
Reported speech
present simple
I am happy
I sleep
past simple
He said he was happy
He said he slept
present continuos
I am feeling happy
I am sleeping
past continuos
He said he was feeling happy
He said he was sleeping
past simple
I was happy
I slept
past perfect
He said he had been happy
He said he had slept
present perfect
I have been happy
I have slept
past perfect
He said he had been happy
He said he had slept
present perfect continuos
I have been feeling happy
I have been sleeping
past perfect continuos
He said he had been feeling happy
He said he had been sleeping
future
I will be happy
I will sleep
simple conditional
He said he would be happy
He said he would sleep
future perfect
I will have been happy
I will have sleep
simple conditional perfect
He said he would have been happy
He said he would have slept
Verbos modales
Direct speech
Reported speech
CAN
I can sleep
COULD
He said he could sleep
MAY
I may sleep
MIGHT
He said he might sleep
WILL
I will sleep
WOULD
He said he would sleep
MUST
I must sleep
HAD TO
He said he had to sleep
Cambios que pueden sufrir algunas partículas de lugar y tiempo:
now at that moment, then
tonight that night
today that day
last night the night before
this morning that morning
this week that week
next week the following week
next year the year after
here there
Reported Speech: questions
En las oraciones interrogativas usamos el mismo orden gramatical: el sujeto va después del verbo pero no es necesario usar el auxiliar "do" o "did".
Direct speech
Reported speech
"Where do Susan and Ann work? "
He asked me where Susan and Ann worked.
"¿Dónde trabajan Susan y Ann?"
Él me preguntó dónde trabajaban Mary y Tom.

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